Materials used for writing
The discovery of agriculture revolutionized human life in ancient times, as it moved from the stage of primitive life to a life of stability and building cities and villages. The discovery of writing was also a revolution in human life, so the historical era began, and man became able to write down his history and his achievements to be transmitted to generations after him, using simple tools. which nature provides him to write on, so man used stones, clay slabs, and temple walls as a substitute for paper.
The materials used in the production of paper differed from one region to another, so the Pharaohs used papyrus, which grows in oases and on the banks of the Nile naturally, and the Chinese used hemp fibers, mulberry tree bark, and worn-out rags, as these materials were mixed with water and fermented for a specific period, and then singled out in the form of Flat boards, after they are completely dry, are used for writing.
The paper industry depends on the parts of plants. The first thing that started the paper industry is extracting wood pulp and mixing it with water until it becomes a paste, then it is spread out and dried to become paper. The paper industry, like other industries, has developed greatly. The increase in the need for this material stimulated the development of its industry, especially after the discovery of printing.
Making paper in a mechanical way
A mechanical method, as plant materials are cleaned of dust and suspended matter using special machines.
These materials are collected in a large container, lime is added to them, closed and placed on the fire for several hours.
Due to the high heat, the plant fibers decompose and combine with the lime, forming an insoluble soap-like mixture.
This liquid mixture enters a second machine that separates the liquid materials and turns them into dry fibres.
These fibers enter another manufacturing stage so that these fibers become scattered pieces.
Colorants and lime sulphate glue are added to this product in order to increase the size and weight of the paper.
Paper is cut to specific specifications.
Printing Paper: It is a lightweight, smooth-feeling, well-coated paper.
Photographic paper: It is the best and smoothest type of paper.
Newspaper: It is a light paper with little durability.
Magazine paper: It is similar to newspaper paper, except that it is more glossy.
Cardboard paper: it is normal and it is cardboard.
The low price of paper led to the spread of knowledge among the peoples of the world, so old books and literature were translated into multiple languages, which enabled the peoples of the world to learn about the civilizations of other peoples, and to benefit from the ancient civilizational achievements, to build a new prosperous future.
The multiplicity of uses of paper led to its spread in various parts of the world, and damaged paper became a source of pollution for the environment, so man went to search for a way to stop this pollution, as well as reduce waste from these materials, so he was guided to the recycling process, as damaged papers are collected from shops Schools and paper mills send them to be recycled again.